Previous research suggested maybe 1 in 4,000 people living in Britain were carrying the protein that causes vCJD, says Dr. Sebastian Brandner, one of the study authors and head of the Division of Neuropathology at Queen Square, one of the largest academic neuropathology departments in the UK. But that estimate was made using a smaller sample, says Brandner. This new study, published Tuesday in the medical journal BMJ, was much larger.Researchers studied appendix samples from 32,441 people and found 16 that tested positive for vCJD. Given that population of the United Kingdom is a little over 60 million, Brandner says that means about 1 in 2,000 people – or roughly 30,000 people total – have this potentially lethal prion. Brandner says the peak of mad cow disease was in 1992, and the peak of the human form of mad cow disease occurred in 2000. This suggests there is an 8-year incubation period for the disease. However, his research has revealed that there are at least three different forms of the prion protein linked to vCJD, which might explain why more people haven’t become sick with the disease – yet. “These people may harbor that [vCJD] for a longer time; they may develop a different type of prion disease; they may be silent carriers,” says Brandner. Brandner says there’s one definite concern: that these silent carriers may be potentially transmitting the disease. There is no blood test to detect vCJD, so someone could unknowingly pass the prion protein on to others when they give blood, and prions are not destroyed by standard sterilization methods usually used for surgical instruments only harsher, stronger sterilization procedures will kill them. According to WHO, the human form of mad cow disease was first reported in the United Kingdom in March 1996 and the first cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, was first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. More than 184,000 cows in the UK were eventually confirmed to have BSE. The average age of death for vCJD is about 28 months, according to the CDC, which is one way it distinguishes itself from classic Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease; classic CJD emerged more than a century ago and affects older people. The average age for this disease, which is not linked to the consumption of meat from cattle with BSE, is 68.
Dowling was part of the Fulbright Summer Institute, which is a summer program that provides U.S. undergraduate college students with an academic and cultural immersion abroad for three to six-week periods. During the month of June, Dowling studied with nine other American students at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom. The summer institute focused on the Triangular Trade, with teaching by scholars from Africa, North America and the United Kingdom. The students researched various topics related to this trade route and presented their findings at the end of the program. Dowling’s research focused on the Triangular slave trade, in which ships transported slaves to America from Africa to work on plantations, where cotton, sugar, tobacco and other goods were produced. Lectures often ventured beyond the typical classroom setting. Students took class trips to explore the city of Bristol and its history. On the checklist of tours, students visited a merchant venture plantation where they could overlook the harbor that the merchant slave ships docked en route to America. By the end of his trip, Dowling said he “knew the city of Bristol better than the actual Bristol students probably did.” Although the educational tours were interesting, Dowling and his fellow students enjoyed exploring Bristol and other cities, including Bathe and London. “The roast done in the pubs every Sunday was great,” Dowling said. “But the chips were awful. I needed American French fries.” He now is back at Roanoke, but he has high hopes of traveling abroad again. Dowling, who has not yet decided on his academic major, hopes to discover his academic passion by experiencing the world like he did this summer and pursuing a career that allows him to do just that.
Automotive Manufacturing in the United Kingdom
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